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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Bond Construction"

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SOLAR/1050-79/04 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



BOND CONSTRUCTION 
APRIL 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



. NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
BOND CONSTRUCTION 
APRIL 1979 
I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Bond Construction site is a single-family residence in Gladstone, Missouri. 
The home has approximately 1400 square feet of conditioned space. Solar 
energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water 
(DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a 
gross area of 465 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 37 
degrees to the horizontal. A propylene glycol solution is the transfer 
medium that delivers solar energy from the collector array to an external 
heat exchanger. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy from 
the external heat exchanger to storage and from storage to the hot water load 
and liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the furnace. Air is the transfer medium 
that delivers solar energy to the space heating load. Solar energy is stored 
in the basement in an 800-gallon steel storage tank with walls approximately 
1/4-inch thick. The storage tank has 4-inch polyurethane insulation on the 
bottom and 8-inch fiberglass insulation on the top and sides. Preheated city 
water is stored in an 82-gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient 
to satisfy the space heating load, a gas furnace provides auxiliary energy 
for space heating. Similarly, an electrical immersion heater in the DHW tank 
provides auxiliary energy for heating the supply water. Solar energy is 
transferred from the storage tank to the hot-air heating system by a liquid- 
to-air heat exchanger contained in the furnace ductwork; solar energy is 
transferred from the storage tank to the DHW tank by an annular heat exchanger 
jacket around the hot water tank. The house also contains a fireplace with 
an integral fan; the fireplace is only instrumented for monitoring fan power 
consumption. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1 , has 5 modes of 
solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage ; This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 20°F between a control sensor located at the collector and 
a control sensor located inside the storage tank (near the bottom). At 
this time the controller turns on both the collector and storage circuit 




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pumps (PI and P2, respectively). Solar energy is transferred from the collector 
to the storage tank by an external heat exchanger. Both pumps continue to 
operate until the temperature difference is less than 5°F; the controller 
then turns both pumps off. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the room tem- 
perature drops to the setting on the house thermostat. At this point, this 
mode is initiated if the storage temperature, measured by a control sensor 
inside the tank (near the top), is higher than 95°F. If so, the furnace 
circuit pump (P3) turns on and hot water circulates from the storage tank 
through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the furnace. At the same time the 
furnace fan turns on, forcing air past the heat exchanger, thereby transferring 
the solar energy to the heating load. If the room temperature drops an 
additional increment (set point), the auxiliary gas burner turns on to provide 
auxiliary energy to the heating load. If storage temperature falls to 90°F 
while in this mode, the mode terminates. However, the fan and gas furnace 
continue to supply energy until the thermostat demand is satisfied. If the 
storage temperature is below 95°F when the room thermostat calls for heat, 
this mode does not activate; auxiliary energy is then provided by the gas 
furnace. The pump, fan and burner (if on) are turned off when the room 
temperature exceeds the thermostat setting. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-DHW : This mode activates when there is a temperature 
difference of 10°F between the control sensor located inside the storage tank 
(near the top) and the control sensor located in the hot water tank (near the 
middle). This mode terminates when the temperature difference drops to 3°F. 
When this mode activates, pump P4 circulates hot water from the storage tank 
through an annular jacket surrounding the hot water tank; energy is thereby 
transferred to the water in the hot water tank. The electric immersion 
heater in the hot water tank turns on to provide auxiliary energy to the DHW 
if the temperature in the hot water tank drops below its thermostat setting. 



Mode 4 - Elimination of Excess Heat in Summer : This mode activates when the 
storage tank temperature, as determined by an aquastat located in the tank, 
exceeds 180°F. At this time the collector and storage circuit pumps (PI and 
P2, respectively) are activated, thereby transferring energy from the storage 
tank to the collector by way of the external heat exchanger. This energy is 
then radiated from the collector to the atmosphere. This mode continues until 
the storage temperature drops below 180°F. 

Mode 5 - Snow Removal in Winter : This mode activates when the collector 
and storage circuit pumps (PI and P2) are manually switched on in order to 
melt the snow that has accumulated on the collector. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was unoccupied in April; however, the solar energy system operated 
continuously during the month. Solar energy satisfed 51 percent of the space 
heating requirements. The solar energy system provided fossil fuel energy 
savings of 1.8 million Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.11 
million Btu. The control problem causing intermittent cycling of mode 1 
during periods of good insolation continued throughout the month. Mode 1 
operated for about 65 percent of the time that potential mode 1 conditions 
existed during the month. There was no hot water load during April, since the 
water was turned off. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
19.6 million Btu for a daily average of 1407 Btu per square foot. This was 
below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area 
during April of 1615 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt 



of 37 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during April 

was 51 °F as compared with the long-term average for April of 54°F. The number 
of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 397, as 
compared with the long-term average of 336. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During April the solar energy system performed somewhat poorer than 
expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar energy 
collected was 3.0 million Btu versus an estimated 2.9 million Btu. Solar 
energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected 
would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 1.8 million Btu. 
System total solar fraction was 51 percent versus an estimated 100 percent. 
The poor performance is attributed to the cycling of mode 1 during periods of 
good insolation. This is discussed further in the "Observations" section 
below. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of April was 19.6 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was 
operating, the total insolation amounted to 5.0 million Btu. The total col- 
lected solar energy for the month of April was 3.0 million Btu, resulting in a 
collector array efficiency of 15 percent, based on total incident insolation. 
Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 3.0 million 
Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to storage was 
0.027 million Btu. This loss represented 1 percent of the energy collected. 
Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.081 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 3.0 million Btu. There were 
1.8 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems 
Energy loss from storage was 1.0 million Btu. This loss represented 32 per- 
cent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 68 per- 
cent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from 



storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. 
The average storage temperature for the month was 117°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 0.73 million Btu of solar energy. There 
was no hot water load since the water was turned off. The DHW subsystem 
consumed a total of 0.020 million Btu of operating energy, resulting in an 
electrical energy expense of 0.020 million Btu. This subsystem is discussed 
further in the "Observations" section. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 1.1 million Btu of 
solar energy and 2.3 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a 
space heating load of 2.1 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 51 
percent. The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.12 million Btu of 
operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 0.009 million 
Btu. It also provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 1.8 million Btu. 



OBSERVATIONS 

Continued cycling of mode 1 during periods of good insolation resulted in 
degraded collector performance throughout the entire month. On April 21 the 
grantee relocated the collector control sensor to make its reading more repre- 
sentative of the collector fluid temperature. In addition, the control tempera- 
ture differentials of mode 1 were changed from 20°F (on)/5°F (off) to 12°F 
(on)/4°F (off). However, due to an apparent problem within the controller, 
mode 1 appears to deactivate at an 11°F temperature differential. The grantee 
will replace the defective controller as soon as a replacement controller is 
available. 

The flow sensor in the storage to DHW heater loop (W300) was defective. 
Therefore, the design flow of three gallons per minute was used to determine 
the amount of solar energy delivered from storage to the DHW subsystem during 
April. The operating energy consumed by the DHW subsystem during mode 3 
operation was considered to be an electrical energy expense since there was no 



DHW load during the month; therefore, the solar energy transfer from storage 
to the DHW heater served no useful purpose. (The house was unoccupied and the 
water was turned off.) 

Anomalies in two of the three storage temperature sensors required that the 
storage temperature be based on the single operating sensor. Since this 
sensor measures the temperature at the top of the tank, the reported average 
storage temperature is probably higher than the true average storage tempera- 
ture. 

The performance factors show a loss of 0.027 million Btu between the collector 
and input to storage. This loss represents 1 percent of the energy collected 
during April. Since there is a heat exchanger (HX) between the collector and 
storage, this low energy loss is suspect. Analysis shows an energy gain between 
the collector and the HX input. An analysis of temperature differentials in 
the collector loop during mode 1 indicates that T100, collector input, may be 
reading high. The calibration of this sensor, and the other temperature sen- 
sors in the collector loop, should be checked to verify that accurate tempera- 
ture measurements are being recorded. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a total fossil fuel energy savings of 1.8 
million Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.11 million Btu. The 
DHW subsystem incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.020 million Btu. The 
space heating subsystem incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.009 million 
Btu and provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 1.8 million Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

The grantee will replace the collector controller in May. Boeing must resolve 
the instrumentation sensor anomalies and check the calibration of the collector 
loop temperature sensors on their next site visit. No visit is scheduled at 
this time. 







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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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